Day 1 :
University of Basel, Switzerland
Time : 09:00-09:40
Christoph Gerber is a titular professor at the Department of Physics, University of Basel, Switzerland. He was a founding member and Director for Scientific Communication of the NCCR (National Center of Competence in Research Nanoscale Science). He was formerly a Research Staff Member in Nanoscale Science at the IBM Research Laboratory in Rueschlikon, Switzerland, and has served as a project leader in various programs of the Swiss National Science Foundation and in the European Framework 6. For the past 40 years, his research has been focused on Nanoscale Science. He is a pioneer in Scanning Probe Microscopy, and he made major contributions to the invention of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope and the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), he is also a co-inventor of Biochemical sensors based on AFM Technology.
Nature is the best example of a system functioning on the nanometer scale, where the involved materials, energy consumption and data handling are optimized. The emergence of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 31 years ago in the then fledgling field of nanotechnology led to a shift of paradigm in the understanding and perception of matter at its most fundamental level. It undoubtedly has opened new avenues in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine and still is inspiring researchers around the world testified so far by more than 300’000 scientific articles in peer reviewed journals . The high flexibility of AFM to image, probe and manipulate materials with unprecedented resolution and to be combined with other technologies made it the most powerful and versatile toolkit in nanoscience and – technology of today. As a consequence, new revolutionary concepts stimulated numerous new technologies across all disciplines and beyond. I will discuss recent findings.
QED Radiations, Hong Kong
Keynote: Nanoparticles and dark matter
Time : 09:40-10:10
Thomas Prevenslik developed the simple theory of QED based on the Planck law of QM. Differing from the complex QED by Feynman and others, simple QED assumes any heat absorbed in nanoparticles having high surface-to-volume ratios place interior atoms under high EM confinement that by the Planck law of QM precludes the atoms from having the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature. In the instant topic of Nanoparticles and Dark Matter, the nanoparticles of nanotechnology take the form of submicron cosmic dust that permeates the Universe. Galaxy light redshift from the recession velocity of a galaxy and absorbed by cosmic dust on the way to the Earth undergoes an additional redshift. If the redshift is not corrected for cosmic dust, galaxy velocities are significantly overstated giving the impression that dark matter exists to hold galaxy clusters together when in fact dark matter need not exist as the clusters have and always will be held together by Newtonian mechanics.
Statement of the Problem: Nanotechnology in the science of the very small and the search for dark matter in the very large universe may appear to be unrelated, but in fact find commonality in nanoparticles or NPs. In nanotechnology, NPs are known
to conserve heat by emitting EM radiation instead of increasing in temperature because the Planck law of QM requires the heat capacity of the quantum sized NPs to vanish. QM stands for quantum mechanics. In 1926, Hubble discovered the universe was expanding based on redshift measurements of light from recessing galaxies. But cosmic dust NPs of mostly silicates permeate the universe. Upon the NPs absorbing the galaxy light on the way to the Earth, an additional redshift above the Hubble redshift occurs. Recession velocities are therefore overstated to the extent that to hold galaxy clusters together dark matter is thought to exist. But if Hubble redshift is corrected for cosmic dust, dark matter need not exist as the galaxy clusters are held together by Newtonian mechanics. Because of the ubiquity of cosmic dust, all astronomical velocity measurements based on Hubble redshift are most likely overstated, e.g., the long-standing galaxy rotation problem may be resolved without the need for dark matter if the redshift velocities are corrected for cosmic dust.
Findings: Classical physics that allows the atoms in quantum sized dust NPs to have the heat capacity to fluctuate in temperature has misdirected cosmology to an expanding universe. Contrarily, QM argues the Universe is not expanding suggesting cosmology return to Einstein’s once upon a time notion of a static and dynamic universe.
Recommendations: Searches for dark matter be discontinued in favor of redshift measurements in cosmic dust.
Dalian University of Technology, China
Time : 10:10-10:40
Masaru Matsuo has completed his PhD at Kyoto University in Japan and was a Professor of Nara Women’s University, Japan. After his retirement, he became a Full-Time Professor of Dalian University of Technology in China. Since September 1st (2014) he is a Visiting Professor at the same university. He has published more than 200 papers in refereed journal articles. He is IUPAC Fellow and Certificate of Membership Award of ACS (July 2015 - July 2018). He received “The Award of the Society of Fiber Science and Technology of Japan” in May 1990, “Paul Flory Polymer Research Prize” in April 2010 and “Certificate of Friendship Award of Liaoning Province in China” in September 2011.
Iodine-doping effect provided significant development of nano-particles/polymer composites. This presentation is concerned with two examples. 1) drastic increase in electric conductivity of iodine-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) films, CNT content being beyond 4 vol%, elongated up to 50 times. Young’s modulus of and conductivity of the composite reached 25 GPa and 0.1 S/cm, respectively. The mechanism responsible for the conductivity increase was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy in terms of bond polarization. The Raman spectroscopy indicated that doped iodine existed as I5- which acts as the charge carriers to form charge transfer complex. Namely, I5- provided an increase in charge carriers linked to the CNTs and could be taken as bridge for the adjacent or nearly CNTs. Thus, the iodine-doping contributed to development of the composite with high electric conductivity and high mechanical property. The high Young’s modulus was due to extremely preferential orientation of UHMEPE chain axes with respect to the stretching direction. 2) preparation of tough titanium/carbon composite with smooth film surface with mixed types of anatase form and rutile form. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) composite films were prepared by gelation/crystallization from dispersed solution containing TiO2 particles against PVA. The incorporation of iodine into the composites was done and the iodine-incorporation composites were carbonized under argon gas in the temperature range of 700-1600°C. No disruption of the composite was found to be due to the appearances of Ti2O3 groups and the Ti-C structure performing cross-linking between neighboring amorphous carbon chains. Under the carbonization process, iodine-incorporation played an important role as a catalyst to promote the formation of the cross-linking between amorphous carbon chains through the resultant Ti-C structure that occurs by hydration. The coagulated TiO2 powders in the composite film carbonized at 1200°C maintained a predominantly anatase-type as has been generally known as photo-catalytic activity. The perfect transition to the rutile-type dramatically occurred at 1600°C.
Osaka University, Japan
Keynote: High efficiency crystalline Si solar cells with simple structure fabricated with surface structure chemical transfer method
Time : 11:00-11:30
Hikaru Kobayashi received PhD Degree in Chemistry from Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, in 1981 and 1984, respectively. From 1984 to 1986, he was a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania. From 1986-1987, he was a Researcher in Matsushita Electronics Corporation Kyoto Research Center. From 1987 to 1990, he was a Research Associate in Department of Engineering Science, Osaka University. From 1990 to 1998, he has been an Associate Professor in Department of Chemistry and Faculty of Engineering Science same university where he was engaged in research on silicon solar cells, surface and interface science of silicon, and interface states of silicon surfaces; from 1998, he has been a Professor in the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research same university. He is now engaged in research on silicon solar cells, hydrogen generation from Si nanopowder and Si nanopowder anode in Li ion batteries.
We have developed a method to fabricate ultralow reflectance (≤3%) Si using the surface structure chemical transfer (SSCT) method which simply involves contact of Pt catalyst with Si wafers immersed in H2O2+HF solutions. The SSCT treatment forms a nanocrystalline Si layer with the porosity decreasing with the depth and thus with the refractive index increasing with the depth. Although the graded refractive index can achieve ultralow reflectance, the nanocrystalline Si layer possesses an extremely large surface area, resulting in a high surface recombination rate. We have developed a surface passivation method called PSG method which includes spin-coating of phosphosilicate glass (PSG) and heat treatment at ~900ºC. The heat treatment melts PSG, resulting in its penetration into nanopores in the nanocrsytalline Si layer, formation of chemical bonds with Si nanocrystals, and thus, elimination of surface states. We have fabricated